Tonypa's tile-based tutorials (updated)
[ September 03, 2004 ] by Tonu Paldra, alias Tonypa
A long, well organized and in depth series of articles that cover all the aspects of tile-based games: moving, jumping, scrolling, shooting and much more!

Why tiles?
Map format
More maps
Creating tiles
The hero
Keys to move
Hit the wall
Open the door
Stupid enemy
More on enemy
Shoot him
Getting items
Moving tiles
More scrolling
Isometric view
Mouse to move
Isometric mouse
Isometric scroll
Rotate hero
Rotate bground
More pathfinding


You might wonder, why exactly have I chosen this kind of map format. I cant say this is absolutely best way to go, I cant say this map format creates maps fastest or creates smallest file size. I can only say that after couple years of messing with tile based games, I have found this format to suit best my needs. But lets look at other possible ways to hold your map data.


The original OutsideOfSociety tutorials use very simple map format. Its saved same way in two dimensional array and every number gives us frame number to show in that spot. Every time you would need to check if next tile is wall (or something to pick up, or door or almost anything), you would look up the number from map array.

When looking for collision, you determine the section of frames that count as walls (or pick-ups, or doors). For example, you can make up your mind and say, that all the tiles from frame 0 to 100 are walkable tiles, all tiles from 101 to 200 are walls and tiles >200 are special tiles.

When you have few different tile types and tiles wont change much, this is good and easy way.


Some maps have many different tiles, some have very few. For example, imagine the desert, where for miles and miles there is nothing but sand, if you are lucky, you can see few oasis. Or the sea, there is water and water and more water and finally small island.

If your map is made up from mostly same kind of tiles (sand) and you have only some small variation (trees), then two dimensional array is not good choise. It will hold too much dead information, rows of zeros before some other frame shows up. In this case you might be better to declare all the non-sand objects separately and let everything else be sand.

Lets suppose you have 100x100 map and you have 3 trees there. You can write:

trees = [[23,6], [37,21], [55,345]]

When creating the map, you step through trees array, place the trees and let every other tile show sand image. Thats much more simpler then writing down 100x100 two dimensional array.

Of course, when you make more objects (trees, bushes, grass, stones, water), this method loses much of its speed and it might become hard to remember what tiles are placed where.


If you have Flash MX or later, you have probably heard of magic shortcut XML. It is similar format to HTML, that allows declaration of many things. You can use XML to hold your map data.

Following XML map explanation is based on the Jobe Makar's book "Macromedia Flash MX Game Design Demystified".

Lets look at the sample map in XML:

		<cell type="1">
		<cell type="1">
		<cell type="1">
		<cell type="1">
		<cell type="4">
		<cell type="1">
		<cell type="1">
		<cell type="1">
		<cell type="1">

Here we have set 3x3 map. First there is header "map". Then 3 "row" nodes is set. Each of them has 3 "cell" nodes.

To load maps from external files, XML might be good solution as most of XML parsing can be done with Flash MX built-in functions. Loading two dimensional arrays from text files is not that easy, you always get string from loading variables and you have to split the string into array, which again, is very slow.

You can also see the disadvantages of XML: it leads to much bigger filesize and you need Flash 6 player for it.

All the following examples use two dimensional array to hold map data and use objects when creating tiles on the screen like explained in the chapter "Map format".

Name: Tonu Paldra, alias Tonypa
Location: Estonia
Age: 34
Flash experience: Discovered Flash4 in the year 2000 and fell in love with it. Abandoned Flash4, when they ended Flash4 help forum in Flashkit. Been playing with Flash only in spare time, thinking its great hobby
Job: Magazine designer
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